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Quasars lijken in een optische telescoop op een ster dat wil zeggen dat het puntbronnen zijn , maar door een zeer hoge roodverschuiving is bekend dat dergelijke objecten zich op een afstand van miljarden lichtjaren van de aarde bevinden.

Dat de straling van quasars ondanks deze enorme afstand goed waarneembaar is, betekent dat ze enorm helder moeten zijn. De absolute helderheid , een maat voor de werkelijke lichtkracht, van quasars komt overeen met de energie die tot sterrenstelsels tezamen uitstralen, [1] en dat maakt ze tot de helderste objecten in het universum.

Alleen kortdurende fenomenen zoals gammaflitsen en supernova 's zijn soms nog helderder. De eigenlijke omvang van een quasar is daarentegen veel kleiner dan een enkel sterrenstelsel.

Het gaat immers alleen om de nucleus van een sterrenstelsel: een superzwaar zwart gat met bijbehorende accretieschijf.

Sommige quasars tonen helderheidsvariaties op korte tijdschalen, wat betekent dat ze intrinsiek klein van afmeting zijn. Een object kan namelijk niet in minder tijd van helderheid veranderen dan dat licht erover doet om van de ene naar de andere plek te reizen.

Men gaat ervan uit dat het hart van een quasar gevormd wordt door een superzwaar zwart gat, gelegen in het centrum van een actief sterrenstelsel , dat materie uit zijn omgeving aantrekt.

Rond het zwarte gat vormt zich een accretieschijf , een afgeplatte, rondwervelende schijf van materie, waarin door botsingen de materie voortdurend wordt afgeremd.

Door de wrijving wordt het materiaal verhit terwijl het het zwarte gat steeds dichter nadert, totdat het er uiteindelijk invalt.

Voordat de materie in het gat valt, zendt het grote hoeveelheden straling uit. Loodrecht op het vlak van de schijf wordt materie met grote snelheid het heelal in geschoten en vormt daardoor twee zogenaamde ' jets ' straalstromen.

Quasars zenden niet alleen zichtbaar licht uit: ze stralen energie uit over het hele elektromagnetische spectrum — van radiogolven, via infrarood, optische en ultraviolet licht, tot en met röntgenstraling en zelfs gammastraling.

De meeste quasars zijn echter het helderst in het infrarood. Vanwege de grote afstand tot de aarde en de eindige snelheid van het licht zien wij quasars zoals ze er miljarden jaren geleden, toen het heelal nog jonger was, uitzagen.

De reden dat quasars veel voorkomen in het vroege heelal en op kleinere afstanden zeldzaam of afwezig zijn, is waarschijnlijk dat na verloop van tijd het gas uit de directe omgeving van het zwarte gat is verdwenen; de "brandstof" voor het zwarte gat is op.

Om de energie vrij te maken die een gemiddelde quasar uitstraalt moet een superzwaar zwart gat minimaal het equivalent van 10 zonnemassa 's per jaar aan materie opslokken.

Wellicht heeft de Melkweg zelf ooit ook een quasarstadium doorgemaakt. In waren er De straal van het waarneembaar heelal is groter dan 45 miljard lichtjaar [2].

De dichtstbijzijnde quasar is IC die de reflectienevel Hanny's Voorwerp verlicht. Echter, deze quasar is op dit moment niet actief. Quasars' luminosities are variable, with time scales that range from months to hours.

This means that quasars generate and emit their energy from a very small region, since each part of the quasar would have to be in contact with other parts on such a time scale as to allow the coordination of the luminosity variations.

This would mean that a quasar varying on a time scale of a few weeks cannot be larger than a few light-weeks across. The emission of large amounts of power from a small region requires a power source far more efficient than the nuclear fusion that powers stars.

Stellar explosions such as supernovas and gamma-ray bursts , and direct matter — antimatter annihilation, can also produce very high power output, but supernovae only last for days, and the universe does not appear to have had large amounts of antimatter at the relevant times.

Since quasars exhibit all the properties common to other active galaxies such as Seyfert galaxies , the emission from quasars can be readily compared to those of smaller active galaxies powered by smaller supermassive black holes.

The brightest known quasars devour solar masses of material every year. The largest known is estimated to consume matter equivalent to 10 Earths per second.

Quasar luminosities can vary considerably over time, depending on their surroundings. Since it is difficult to fuel quasars for many billions of years, after a quasar finishes accreting the surrounding gas and dust, it becomes an ordinary galaxy.

Radiation from quasars is partially "nonthermal" i. Extremely high energies might be explained by several mechanisms see Fermi acceleration and Centrifugal mechanism of acceleration.

Quasars can be detected over the entire observable electromagnetic spectrum , including radio , infrared , visible light , ultraviolet , X-ray and even gamma rays.

Most quasars are brightest in their rest-frame ultraviolet wavelength of A minority of quasars show strong radio emission, which is generated by jets of matter moving close to the speed of light.

When viewed downward, these appear as blazars and often have regions that seem to move away from the center faster than the speed of light superluminal expansion.

This is an optical illusion due to the properties of special relativity. Quasar redshifts are measured from the strong spectral lines that dominate their visible and ultraviolet emission spectra.

These lines are brighter than the continuous spectrum. They exhibit Doppler broadening corresponding to mean speed of several percent of the speed of light.

Fast motions strongly indicate a large mass. Emission lines of hydrogen mainly of the Lyman series and Balmer series , helium, carbon, magnesium, iron and oxygen are the brightest lines.

The atoms emitting these lines range from neutral to highly ionized, leaving it highly charged. This wide range of ionization shows that the gas is highly irradiated by the quasar, not merely hot, and not by stars, which cannot produce such a wide range of ionization.

Like all unobscured active galaxies, quasars can be strong X-ray sources. Radio-loud quasars can also produce X-rays and gamma rays by inverse Compton scattering of lower-energy photons by the radio-emitting electrons in the jet.

Quasars also provide some clues as to the end of the Big Bang 's reionization. More recent quasars show no absorption region, but rather their spectra contain a spiky area known as the Lyman-alpha forest ; this indicates that the intergalactic medium has undergone reionization into plasma , and that neutral gas exists only in small clouds.

The intense production of ionizing ultraviolet radiation is also significant, as it would provide a mechanism for reionization to occur as galaxies form.

Quasars show evidence of elements heavier than helium , indicating that galaxies underwent a massive phase of star formation , creating population III stars between the time of the Big Bang and the first observed quasars.

Light from these stars may have been observed in using NASA 's Spitzer Space Telescope , [56] although this observation remains to be confirmed.

The taxonomy of quasars includes various subtypes representing subsets of the quasar population having distinct properties.

Because quasars are extremely distant, bright, and small in apparent size, they are useful reference points in establishing a measurement grid on the sky.

Because they are so distant, they are apparently stationary to our current technology, yet their positions can be measured with the utmost accuracy by very-long-baseline interferometry VLBI.

The positions of most are known to 0. A grouping of two or more quasars on the sky can result from a chance alignment, where the quasars are not physically associated, from actual physical proximity, or from the effects of gravity bending the light of a single quasar into two or more images by gravitational lensing.

When two quasars appear to be very close to each other as seen from Earth separated by a few arcseconds or less , they are commonly referred to as a "double quasar".

When the two are also close together in space i. As quasars are overall rare objects in the universe, the probability of three or more separate quasars being found near the same physical location is very low, and determining whether the system is closely separated physically requires significant observational effort.

The first true triple quasar was found in by observations at the W. Keck Observatory Mauna Kea , Hawaii. When astronomers discovered the third member, they confirmed that the sources were separate and not the result of gravitational lensing.

A multiple-image quasar is a quasar whose light undergoes gravitational lensing , resulting in double, triple or quadruple images of the same quasar.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Active galactic nucleus containing a supermassive black hole. This article is about the astronomical object.

For other uses, see Quasar disambiguation. It is not to be confused with quasi-star. Main articles: Redshift , Metric expansion of space , and Universe.

Play media. Main articles: Reionization and Chronology of the Universe. Astronomy portal Space portal. ESO Science Release. Retrieved 4 July Bibcode : Natur.

February Accretion Power in Astrophysics Third ed. Bibcode : apa.. Retrieved The Astrophysical Journal.

Bibcode : ApJ The Astronomical Journal. Bibcode : AJ Retrieved 6 December Gemini Observatory. The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Physics Today.

Bibcode : PhT Archived from the original on The Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Bibcode : PASP.. Retrieved 3 October European Space Agency.

Astrophysical Journal. Physics: Imagination and Reality. Jodrell Bank Observatory. Shields The Discovery Of Quasars".

Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Chandrasekhar Greenstein ; M. Schmidt Gray That's weird! Golden, Colo. Dordrecht: Springer.

Bibcode : itaa. Energy Source". October The University of Alabama. Jun 20, Science News. Retrieved 20 November Nature Astronomy. Bibcode : NatAs Astroparticle physics.

Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology Illustrated ed. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 19 June Archived from the original PDF on December 17, Retrieved December 30, Archived from the original PDF on February 2, Retrieved July 1, Barthel Retrieved 26 October Retrieved 4 November Bouwens; et al.

The Nature of Cosmological Ionizing Source".

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1 Antworten

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