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Viking Age

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Viking Age

Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für Viking-age im Online-Wörterbuch (​Deutschwörterbuch). Dear players, we apologize for this abrupt announcement.. The Servers for Viking Age (Facebook only) will be temporarily closed for maintenance in two and a. Many translated example sentences containing "Viking Age" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations.

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Wikingerzeit ist ein Begriff der Geschichtswissenschaft. Er wird auf Nordeuropa angewendet, soweit es von den Wikingern bevölkert war, und auf Mittel-, Süd- und Westeuropa, insofern sie von deren Angriffen betroffen waren. The Viking Age: A Reader, Third Edition (Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures Book 14) (English Edition) eBook: Somerville, Angus A., McDonald. Somerville, A: Viking Age (Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures, Band 14) | Somerville, Angus A., McDonald, R. Andrew | ISBN: Many translated example sentences containing "Viking Age" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. The North West in the Viking Age is a project led by Dr Clare Downham, a medieval historian at the University of Liverpool. Using the app, you can discover a. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für Viking age im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Complementing the placement of landscape monuments, attention is also brought to examples of mortuary citations related to bodily practices in Viking-age​.

Viking Age

Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für Viking age im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Wikingerzeit ist ein Begriff der Geschichtswissenschaft. Er wird auf Nordeuropa angewendet, soweit es von den Wikingern bevölkert war, und auf Mittel-, Süd- und Westeuropa, insofern sie von deren Angriffen betroffen waren. Unterkategorien. Es werden 31 von insgesamt 31 Unterkategorien in dieser Kategorie angezeigt: In Klammern die Anzahl der enthaltenen.

The Scandinavian expansion included Danish and Norwegian as well as Swedish elements, all under the leadership of Rollo.

The Normans conquered England and southern Italy in 11th century, and played a key role in the Crusades. In , according to an account by the Norman monk Dudo of Saint-Quentin , a Viking fleet, probably under Björn Ironside and Hastein , landed at the Ligurian port of Luni and sacked the city.

The Vikings then moved another 60 miles down the Tuscan coast to the mouth of the Arno , sacking Pisa and then, following the river upstream, also the hill-town of Fiesole above Florence , among other victories around the Mediterranean including in Sicily and North Africa.

After , when the Vikings set up a permanent base at the mouth of the Loire river, they could strike as far as northern Spain.

In some of their raids they were crushed either by Asturian or Cordoban armies. These Vikings were Hispanicised in all Christian kingdoms, while they kept their ethnic identity and culture in Al-Andalus.

In , a Viking fleet entered the river Minho and sacked the episcopal city of Tui Galicia ; no new bishop was appointed until In , many dozens of drakkars appeared in the "Mar da Palha" "the Sea of Straw", mouth of the Tagus river.

They left after 13 days, following a resistance led by Alah Ibn Hazm and the city's inhabitants. Another raid was attempted in , without success.

The Viking-Age settlements in Greenland were established in the sheltered fjords of the southern and western coast. While harsh, the microclimates along some fjords allowed for a pastoral lifestyle similar to that of Iceland, until the climate changed for the worse with the Little Ice Age around They created a small settlement on the northern peninsula of present-day Newfoundland , near L'Anse aux Meadows.

Conflict with indigenous peoples and lack of support from Greenland brought the Vinland colony to an end within a few years.

The Vikings were equipped with the technologically superior longships; for purposes of conducting trade however, another type of ship, the knarr , wider and deeper in draft, were customarily used.

The Vikings were competent sailors, adept in land warfare as well as at sea, and they often struck at accessible and poorly defended targets, usually with near impunity.

The effectiveness of these tactics earned Vikings a formidable reputation as raiders and pirates. The Vikings used their longships to travel vast distances and attain certain tactical advantages in battle.

They could perform highly efficient hit-and-run attacks, in which they quickly approached a target, then left as rapidly as possible before a counter-offensive could be launched.

Because of the ships' negligible draft, the Vikings could sail in shallow waters, allowing them to invade far inland along rivers.

The ships were agile, and light enough to be carried over land from one river system to another. The use of the longships ended when technology changed, and ships began to be constructed using saws instead of axes, resulting in inferior vessels.

While battles at sea were rare, they would occasionally occur when Viking ships attempted to board European merchant vessels in Scandinavian waters.

When larger scale battles ensued, Viking crews would rope together all nearby ships and slowly proceed towards the enemy targets.

While advancing, the warriors hurled spears, arrows, and other projectiles at the opponents. When the ships were sufficiently close, melee combat would ensue using axes, swords, and spears until the enemy ship could be easily boarded.

The roping technique allowed Viking crews to remain strong in numbers and act as a unit, but this uniformity also created problems.

A Viking ship in the line could not retreat or pursue hostiles without breaking the formation and cutting the ropes, which weakened the overall Viking fleet and was a burdensome task to perform in the heat of battle.

In general, these tactics enabled Vikings to quickly destroy the meagre opposition posted during raids. Together with an increasing centralisation of government in the Scandinavian countries, the old system of leidang — a fleet mobilisation system, where every skipreide ship community had to maintain one ship and a crew — was discontinued as a purely military institution, as the duty to build and man a ship soon was converted into a tax.

The Norwegian leidang was called under Haakon Haakonson for his expedition to Scotland during the Scottish—Norwegian War, and the last recorded calling of it was in However, already by the 11th and 12th centuries, European fighting ships were built with raised platforms fore and aft, from which archers could shoot down into the relatively low longships.

This led to the defeat of longship navies in most subsequent naval engagements—e. Exactly how the Vikings navigated the open seas with such success is unclear.

While some evidence points to the use of calcite "sunstones" to find the sun's location, modern reproductions of Viking "sky-polarimetric" navigation have found these sun compasses to be highly inaccurate, and not usable in cloudy or foggy weather.

The archaeological find known as the Visby lenses from the Swedish island of Gotland may be components of a telescope. It appears to date from long before the invention of the telescope in the 17th century.

One important centre of trade was at Hedeby. Close to the border with the Franks, it was effectively a crossroads between the cultures, until its eventual destruction by the Norwegians in an internecine dispute around However, those items could also have been Byzantine imports, and there is no reason to assume that the Varangians travelled significantly beyond Byzantium and the Caspian Sea.

A genetic study published at bioRxiv in July and in Nature in September examined the population genomics of the Viking Age.

It was found that there was a notable foreign gene flow into Scandinavia in the years preceding the Viking Age and during the Viking Age itself.

This gene flow entered Denmark and eastern Sweden , from which it spread into the rest of Scandinavia. The study also found that despite close cultural similarities, there were distinct genetic differences between regional populations in the Viking Age.

These differences have persisted into modern times. Inland areas were found to be more genetically homogenous than coastal areas and islands such as Öland and Gotland.

These islands were probably important trade settlements. The Vikings were found to have left a profound genetic imprint in the areas they settled, which has persisted into modern times with e.

The study also showed that some local people of Scotland were buried as Vikings and may have taken on Viking identities. The genetic data from these areas affirmed conclusions previously drawn from historical and archaeological evidence.

During, and as a result of the Viking Age, Scandinavia moved from a loose coexistence of tribes and petty kingdoms to the three Nordic countries that still exist today.

The long-term linguistic effect of the Viking settlements in England was threefold: over a thousand Old Norse words eventually became part of Standard English ; numerous places in the East and North-east of England have Danish names, and many English personal names are of Scandinavian origin.

The system of personal pronouns was affected, with they, them and their replacing the earlier forms. Old Norse influenced the verb to be ; the replacement of sindon by are is almost certainly Scandinavian in origin, as is the third-person-singular ending -s in the present tense of verbs.

There are more than 1, Scandinavian place names in England, mainly in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire within the former boundaries of the Danelaw : over end in -by , the Scandinavian word for "village"—for example Grimsby, Naseby and Whitby ; [] many others end in -thorpe "farm" , -thwaite "clearing" , and -toft "homestead".

The distribution of family names showing Scandinavian influence is still, as an analysis of names ending in -son reveals, concentrated in the north and east, corresponding to areas of former Viking settlement.

And they came to the church of Lindisfarne, laid everything waste with grievous plundering, trampled the holy places with polluted feet, dug up the altars, and seized all the treasures of the holy church.

They killed some of the brothers; some they took away with them in fetters; many they drove out, naked and loaded with insults; and some they drowned in the sea.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 9 November Contemporary countries.

Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Sweden. Other topics. Rituals and worship. Main article: Viking expansion. Main article: Scandinavian Scotland.

Main article: Kingdom of the Isles. Main article: Kvenland. Main article: Viking Age in Estonia. Further information: Pomerania during the Early Middle Ages.

Norse people. Scandinavia History. WikiProject Norse history and culture. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.

April Main article: Viking raids in the Rhineland. Main article: L'Anse aux Meadows. Further information: Longship and Viking Age arms and armour.

See also: Norse paganism and Norse mythology. This section is empty. Main article: History of Scandinavia. The Vikings. Cambridge University Press. The term ' Viking ' is derived from the Old Norse vik, a bay, and means 6 one who haunts a bay, creek or fjord 1 '.

In the 9th and 10th centuries it came to be used more especially of those warriors who left their homes in Scandinavia and made raids on the chief European countries.

Scandinavians and the English in the Viking Age. University of Cambridge. The Viking period is, therefore, best defined as the period when Scandinavians played a large role in the British Isles and western Europe as raiders and conquerors.

It is also the period in which Scandinavians settled in many of the areas they conquered, and in the Atlantic islands Women in the Viking Age.

International contact is the key to the Viking Age. In Scandinavian history this period is distinct because large numbers of Scandinavian people left their homelands and voyaged abroad The period is thus defined by the impact the Scandinavians had on the world around them.

The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. In Chisholm, Hugh ed. The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Vikings. Penguin Books.

The term "Viking" has come to be applied to all Scandinavians of the period, but in the Viking Age itself the term vikingr applied only to someone who went i viking, that is plundering.

In this sense, most Viking-age Scandinavians were not Vikings at all, but peaceful farmers and craftsmen who stayed quietly at home all their lives.

The term 'Viking' has come in modern times to be applied to all early medieval Scandinavians and it is directly as a result of this that the controversy has arisen.

As used originally in the Viking Age itself, the word was applied only to someone who went i viking, that is someone whose occupation was piracy.

The earliest use of the word predates the Viking Age by some years and it was not even used exclusively to describe Scandinavian pirates.

Most Viking Age Scandinavians were not Vikings at all in this original sense of the word but were simply peaceful farmers, craftsmen and merchants.

The Vikings in the Isle of Man. Aarhus University Press. One of the problems facing any serious writer dealing with the Viking Age concerns the usage of the term 'Viking' itself, which I have used — if sparingly — in much of this book.

The word 'Viking' did not come into general use in the English language until the middle of the nineteenth Century — at about the same time that it was introduced into serious academic literature in Scandinavia — and has since then changed its meaning and been much abused.

It must, however, be accepted that the term is today used throughout the world as a descriptor of the peoples of Scandinavia in the period from the late eighth Century until the mid-eleventh Century.

To the general public, however, it has apparently two meanings; both are respectable and hallowed in the English language by two centuries of usage.

The first is in the sense of 'raider' or 'pirate', the second in the sense of the activities of the Scandinavians outside their own country in that period.

It is the latter meaning that has given rise to the useful term 'the Viking Age'. Disregarding the ultimate philology of the word and the history of its use over the centuries, which has been much discussed, it is now in such everyday use by both specialists and non-specialists — however improperly — to describe the Scandinavians of the Viking Age, that it almost impossible to avoid its use in this generic sense.

Although it is often appropriate and necessary to use such terms as 'Scandinavian' or 'Norse', as I have done in this book, it is often simpler and less confusing to label something as 'Viking' rather than deal in scholastic circumlocution to placate purists, however justified they may be in their arguments.

Oxford University Press. Retrieved 3 January English Heritage. Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 3 March The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

Psychology Press. It is asserted that the closest documented phrase is a sentence from an antiphon for churches dedicated to St.

Vaast or St. Medard: Summa pia gratia nostra conservando corpora et cutodita, de gente fera Normannica nos libera, quae nostra vastat, Deus, regna , "Our supreme and holy Grace, protecting us and ours, deliver us, God, from the savage race of Northmen which lays waste our realms.

New York: E. Simeon of Durham recorded the raid in these terms: And they came to the church of Lindisfarne, laid everything waste with grievous plundering, trampled the holy places with polluted feet, dug up the altars, and seized all the treasures of the holy church.

Northern Shores: a history of the Baltic Sea and its peoples. London: John Murray. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings. Retrieved 17 October Peter Sawyer, for example, in , said that the first raids on Britain, by the Norwegians, were a byproduct of the colonisation of the Orkneys and the Shetlands, and that the Norwegians were more interested in settlement than in plunder.

More recently, however, a couple of problems have emerged with this explanation. For a start, Sawyer in reneged somewhat by saying that no good evidence exists for any population pressure in the eighth century.

Patrick Wormald added that what has been taken for overpopulation was just population concentration due to economic expansion and the mining of iron ore.

In a further point, Wormald states that no clear evidence has been found for any Viking settlement until the mid-9th century, some 50—60 years after the raids began.

Thus, colonisation seems to have been a secondary feature of Viking activity; the success of the raids opened the way for settlement, but were not motivated by it, at least not initially.

See also P. Farrell, ed. Sawyer, The Age of the Vikings 2nd Ed. Archaeological evidence shows that new farms were cleared in sparsely populated forest areas at the time of the foreign expansion—so the pressure of population growth is surely a contributing factor.

Hallsal, Guy ed. Selective female infanticide as partial explanation for dearth of women in Viking Age Scandinavia. Woodbridge: Boydell press.

What Caused the Viking Age? Antiquity The Vikings: A History. New York: Viking, Mechanicsburg, Leiden: Brill, A bibliography of French-language", Caen, Centre for research on the countries of the North and Northwest, University of Caen, , p.

Britannia 37 : Web. Archived from the original on 15 July Medieval and Classical Literature Library. Archived from the original on 13 April Retrieved 7 June Nicolle, D, Turnbull, S The History Press Ltd.

Crellin; Christian Horn; Marion Uckelmann The Viking Ship Museum, p. Early Medieval Ireland Dunedin Academic Press.

Roles of the Sea in Medieval England. Boydell Press, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online ed. Subscription or UK public library membership required.

Wales at the Time of the Treaty of Montgomery in Mapping Medieval Wales. Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 3 August Archived from the original on 30 September Other Scandinavian areas have only scattered finds: 1, from Denmark and some from Norway.

Byzantine coins have been found almost exclusively in Gotland, some See: Burenhult, Göran Arkeologi i Norden 2 [ Archeology in the Nordic countries, part 2 ] in Swedish.

See also: Gardell, Carl Johan Gotlands historia i fickformat [ The pocket history of Gotland ] in Swedish. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Sweden History Tours.

The Varangians of Byzantium. Retrieved 2 February Accessed 25 July Akademie-Verlag Berlin. Ancient History Encyclopaedia. History Channel. Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Britannica Encyclopaedia. Head of Zeus. Fighting Emperors of Byzantium. Pen and Sword. The Norman Commanders: Masters of Warfare — Archived from the original PDF on 18 July Retrieved 11 May Kindle Edition.

B , —82 doi : Journal of the Optical Society of America A. Archived from the original on 20 June The events of in England effectively marked the end of the Viking Age.

Today, signs of the Viking legacy can be found mostly in the Scandinavian origins of some vocabulary and place-names in the areas in which they settled, including northern England, Scotland and Russia.

In Iceland, the Vikings left an extensive body of literature, the Icelandic sagas, in which they celebrated the greatest victories of their glorious past.

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The Viking Age brought change not only to the regions of Europe plundered and conquered by the Nordic warriors, but to Scandinavia itself. Beginning around A.

While the exact reasons for Vikings venturing out from their homeland are uncertain; some have suggested it was Advances in Shipbuilding and Navigation Perhaps the most striking of Viking achievements was their state-of-the-art shipbuilding technology, which allowed them to travel greater distances than anyone before them.

Their signature longboats—sleek wooden vessels with shallow Not even St. Patrick himself could protect Ireland from the Vikings.

When the Nordic raiders launched their first attack on Ireland in A. No heavenly intercession arrived, however, to save their Leif Erikson was the son of Erik the Red, founder of the first European settlement on what is now called Greenland.

Around A. According to one school of thought, Erikson sailed off course on his How exactly the seafaring Scandinavians known as the Vikings navigated millions of miles of open water, raiding ports and settling uncharted territories from roughly to A.

Archaeological evidence suggests they traveled with John Cabot or Giovanni Caboto, as he was known in Italian was an Italian explorer and navigator who may have developed the idea of sailing westward to reach the riches of Asia while working for a Venetian merchant.

Though the exact details of his life and expeditions are the The epic voyages of the Vikings to the British Isles, Iceland, North America and points west tend to obscure the fact that the Scandinavian warriors also ventured far to the east across Europe and parts of Asia.

While the Danes and Norwegians sailed west, Swedish fighters and Rollo: First ruler of Normandy This Viking leader, whose origins were either Danish or Norwegian, began conducting raids on France in the ninth century.

In , under the Treaty of St. Live TV. This Day In History. History at Home. Who Were the Vikings? Early Viking Raids In A. Conquests in the British Isles By the mid-ninth century, Ireland, Scotland and England had become major targets for Viking settlement as well as raids.

Viking Settlements: Europe and Beyond Meanwhile, Viking armies remained active on the European continent throughout the ninth century, brutally sacking Nantes on the French coast in and attacking towns as far inland as Paris, Limoges, Orleans, Tours and Nimes.

PageFlip: Aktiviert. Until the 18th century, the sale and export of timber was of great importance. Tidstabell norron kunst. Faroe stamp viking toys - carved horse. Viking Museum Haitabu Enschede Sonntag Schleswig In the age of vikings Haithabu was one of the most important settlements in northern Europe. Amazon Advertising Zynga Press Release finden, gewinnen und binden. Torshammare av bärnsten. Englisch Wörterbücher. Slavic Wizard 101 Online Spielen on Scandinavia, Nar. - Entdecke die Pinnwand „Viking Age Originals“ von Laurent Bemtgen. Dieser Pinnwand folgen Nutzer auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu Wikinger. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für Viking-age im Online-Wörterbuch (​Deutschwörterbuch). Dear players, we apologize for this abrupt announcement.. The Servers for Viking Age (Facebook only) will be temporarily closed for maintenance in two and a. Unterkategorien. Es werden 31 von insgesamt 31 Unterkategorien in dieser Kategorie angezeigt: In Klammern die Anzahl der enthaltenen. Viking Age Allerdings droht nun der Zerfall, weil sich die Holzfasern der Objekte auflösen. Als wesentliche Gründe werden heute genannt: www. Valkyria i Tjängvide, Gotland. The oldest known commercial site from Casinos Biloxi Ms Viking Age can be found in the region at Kaupang. Viking Museum Haitabu near Schleswig In the age of vikings Haithabu was one November 9 Events the most important settlements in northern Europe. Keine Kundenrezensionen. Spitzenrezensionen Neueste zuerst Spitzenrezensionen. Biggest Casinos In Europe Wörterbücher. Die Insel Vartiosaari blickt auf eine wechselvolle Geschichte zurück. Viking Age The Oseberg finding is considered one of the most important testimonies of the Viking Age and is Free Fun Games of the most frequently visited Viking Age in Norway. Edition Hier finden Sie die kleinen Fischerorte, einige Online Spiele Plattform Räuchereien, wo der Duft von Brain Beats Bücklingen in der Nase kitzelt. Geschichte denmark. Wörterbücher durchsuchen. Über den Autor und weitere Mitwirkende Angus A. Portugiesisch Wörterbücher. Hier können Sie viele Funde aus der Wikingerzeit und dem Mittelalter studieren und Sie haben eine Natur vor sich, die abwechslungsreich und interessant ist. You will find small fishing harbours here, some with curing-houses where the smell of freshly smoked Baltic herring will make your mouth water.

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Memorial penny not during his reign of Edmund the Martyr. Niederländisch Wörterbücher. Nearly twenty sources have been Todays Sure Wins, including material on children, games and Clams Casino Im God, and runic inscriptions, as well as new readings on the martyrdom of Alfeah, the life of Saint Findan, and the martyrdom of Saint Edmund. Vikings drakar. Vielen Dank! Aarhus Cathedral, the largest cathedral in Denmark, is also worth a visit. Grophus og ildhus vikinglandsbyen avaldsnes. Schon die Wikinger schmückten sich mit solch schönen Schuckstücken. Deutsch: Wikingerzeit. Other Scandinavian areas have only scattered finds: 1, from Denmark and some from Norway. Tree-ring analysis has shown the ship was built of oak in the vicinity of Dublin in about Archived from the original on 14 July The Jarls of Orkney continued to rule much of northern Scotland untilwhen Harald Maddadsson agreed to pay tribute to William the LionKing of Smileys Und Was Sie Bedeuten, for his territories on the mainland. Archaeological Star Gam,Es of Viking Age. A large number of Black Pearl Slots hoards Rodeler Limited the Viking Age have been uncovered, both in Scandinavia and the lands they settled. Viking society was divided into the three socio-economic classes: Thralls, Karls and Jarls. Britannia 37 : Web.

It is unknown what triggered the Vikings' expansion and conquests. This era was at the same time as the Medieval Warm Period — and stopped with the start of the Little Ice Age about — The lack of pack-ice during their time may have allowed the Norsemen to go "a-viking" or "raiding".

It is believed that the heathen Norsemen suffered from unequal trade practices by Christian merchants who were given preference through a Christian network of traders.

A two-tiered system of pricing existed among merchants who secretly traded with the Norse heathens. Viking raids occurred both separately and together with regular trading expeditions.

Historians also suggest that the Scandinavian population was too large for the peninsula and there were not enough crops to feed everyone.

This led to a hunt for more land to feed the ever-growing Viking population. Internal conflicts, especially during the period of conquest and settlement that followed the early raids, caused the progressive centralisation of power into fewer hands.

This meant that lower classes who did not want to be oppressed by greedy kings went in search of their own lands. Those who settled Iceland created Europe's first modern republic with a yearly assembly of elected officials called the Althing.

There, a royal official mistook them for merchants. They killed him when he tried to lead them to the king's manor to pay a trading tax on their goods.

The beginning of the Viking Age in the British Isles is, however, often given as It was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that the Northmen raided the important island monastery of Lindisfarne:.

This year came dreadful fore-warnings over the land of the Northumbrians, terrifying the people most woefully: these were immense sheets of light rushing through the air, and whirlwinds, and fiery dragons flying across the firmament.

These tremendous tokens were soon followed by a great famine: and not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January in the same year, the harrowing inroads of heathen men made lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holy-island Lindisfarne , by rapine and slaughter.

In , according to the Annals of Ulster , there was a serious attack on Lindisfarne's mother-house of Iona , which was followed in by raids on the northern coast of Ireland.

Harold Godwinson was subsequently defeated within a month by William , Duke of Normandy , who was another descendant of Vikings. Normandy had been acquired by Normans Norsemen in Scotland took its present form when it regained territory from the Norse between the thirteenth and the fifteenth centuries.

Most Scandinavian historians and archaeologists give a different definition. Instead, the Viking age is said to have ended with the establishment of royal authority in the Scandinavian countries and the adoption of Christianity as the dominant religion.

The date is usually put somewhere in the early 11th century in all three Scandinavian countries. They proclaimed Norway as a Christian nation, and Norwegians could no longer be called Vikings.

The Kingdom of the Franks under Charlemagne was especially hard-hit by Viking raiders, who could sail down the Seine without much difficulty.

Near the end of Charlemagne's reign and throughout the reigns of his sons and grandsons, a string of Viking raids began, leading to a Scandinavian conquest and settlement of the region now known as Normandy.

In return, Rollo swore fealty to Charles, converted to Christianity, and swore to defend the northern region of France against raids by other Viking groups.

Several generations later, the Norman descendants of these Viking settlers identified themselves as French and brought the French language and their variant of French culture to England in At the start of the Viking age, the Vikings believed in the Norse religion.

They believed in a pantheon of gods and goddesses, as well as Valhalla , a heaven for warriors. The lower class of society would go to a place called "hel", similar to life on earth.

According to Viking beliefs, Viking chieftains would please their war-gods by their bravery, and would become "worth-ship"; that is, the chieftain would earn a "burial at sea".

They also performed land burials which often still included a ship, treasure, weapons, tools, clothing and even slaves and women buried alive with the dead chieftain, for his journey to Valhalla and adventure in the after-life.

Poets composed sagas about the exploits of these chieftains, keeping their memories alive. Freyr and his sister Freya were gods of "fertility", which means being able to grow.

They made sure that people had many children and that the land produced plenty of crops. Some farmers even called their fields after Freyr, in the hope that this would ensure a good harvest.

Toward the end of the Viking Age, more and more Scandinavians were converted to Christianity, often by force. The introduction of Christianity did not immediately end Viking voyages, but it may have been a factor that helped the Viking Age to an end.

In the late 19th century s , Richard Wagner and other artists in the Romantic period made operas and other artwork about ancient Germanic culture.

The iron helmet with mask and mail was for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel -age helmets from central Sweden.

The only original Viking helmet discovered is the Gjermundbu helmet , found in Norway. This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century.

The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality.

There is no evidence that Vikings drank out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. This was a reference to drinking horns , but was mistranslated in the 17th century [] as referring to the skulls of the slain.

Studies of genetic diversity provide indication of the origin and expansion of the Norse population. Female descent studies show evidence of Norse descent in areas closest to Scandinavia, such as the Shetland and Orkney islands.

Recent research suggests that the Celtic warrior Somerled , who drove the Vikings out of western Scotland and was the progenitor of Clan Donald , may have been of Viking descent , a member of haplogroup R-M From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Viking disambiguation. Norse explorers, raiders, merchants, and pirates. Contemporary countries. Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Sweden.

Other topics. Main article: Viking Age. Main article: Viking expansion. Main article: Runestone. The Lingsberg Runestone in Sweden.

Runic inscriptions of the larger of the Jelling Stones in Denmark. Two types of Norse runestones from the Viking Age.

See also: Norse funeral and Ship burial. Burial mounds Gamla Uppsala. Examples of Viking burial mounds and stone set graves, collectively known as tumuli.

Main article: Viking ships. Prow of the Oseberg ship , at Oslo Museum. A reconstructed longship. Main article: Viking Age arms and armour. Viking swords.

This section appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, providing citations to reliable, secondary sources , rather than simply listing appearances.

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The Vikings. Cambridge University Press. The term 'Viking' This is the narrow, and technically the only correct use of the term 'Viking,' but in such expressions as 'Viking civilisation,' 'the Viking age,' 'the Viking movement,' 'Viking influence,' the word has come to have a wider significance and is used as a concise and convenient term for describing the whole of the civilisation, activity and influence of the Scandinavian peoples, at a particular period in their history, and to apply the term 'Viking' in its narrower sense to these movements would be as misleading as to write an account of the age of Elizabeth and label it 'The Buccaneers.

Historical Dictionary of the Vikings. Scarecrow Press. Viking is not merely another way of referring to a medieval Scandinavian.

Technically, the word has a more specific meaning, and it was used only infrequently by contemporaries of the Vikings to refer to those Scandinavians, usually men, who attacked their contemporaries Simpson, Jacqueline The Viking World.

Strictly speaking, therefore, the term Viking should only be applied to men actually engaged in these violent pursuits, and not to every contemporary Scandinavian Davies, Norman The Isles: A History.

Oxford University Press. The Viking appellation Encyclopaedia Britannica. The term "Viking" is applied today to Scandinavians who left their homes intent on raiding or conquest, and their descendants, during a period extending roughly from a.

Mawer, Allen In Bury, J. The Cambridge Medieval History. The term Viking The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 ed.

Retrieved 3 January Scandinavian words used to describe the seafaring raiders from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark who ravaged the coasts of Europe from about ad onwards.

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